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“悟空”獲得最精確電子宇宙線能譜

作者:齊芳 發表時間:2017年11月30日  

最高能、最純凈、最精確

  “悟空”獲得最精確電子宇宙線能譜

  打開暗物質觀測的新窗口

  光明日報北京11月30日凌晨電(記者齊芳)暗物質粒子探測衛星“悟空”第一篇科學論文在北京時間30日凌晨2點出版的國際學術期刊《自然》在線發表,我國科研人員成功獲取了目前國際上精度最高的電子宇宙射線探測結果。據“悟空”首席科學家、中國科學院紫金山天文臺副臺長常進研究員介紹,“悟空”是世界首個可以在空間觀測直至10TeV(1TeV=1萬億電子伏特)能量的電子和伽馬射線探測器,打開了暗物質觀測的新窗口,讓人類尋找暗物質的旅程前進了一大步。

  

“悟空”獲得最精確電子宇宙線能譜


  圖為甘肅酒泉衛星發射中心用長征二號丁運載火箭成功將暗物質粒子探測衛星“悟空”發射升空的畫面。光明圖片/視覺中國

  暗物質和暗能量被稱為籠罩在現代物理學上空的“兩朵烏云”,對暗物質的尋找和研究是粒子物理和天體物理領域最重大的問題之一。“悟空”的核心使命就是在宇宙線和伽馬射線輻射中尋找暗物質粒子存在的證據,并進行天體物理研究。

  據常進介紹,經過近兩年的在軌運行,“悟空”共采集到約28億高能宇宙射線,其中包含約150萬25GeV(1GeV=10億電子伏特)以上的電子宇宙射線。與費米衛星、阿爾法磁譜儀等國際上已有的空間暗物質探測裝置相比,“悟空”有三個特點:

  最高能——“悟空”的電子宇宙射線的能量測量范圍顯著提高。之前,利用氣球實驗或太空實驗進行的直接測量最多只達到2TeV左右,而“悟空”能夠檢測最高約10TeV的宇宙線電子和正電子。

  最純凈——能夠最大限度地過濾掉宇宙射線的“雜音”,也就是其中混入的質子數量最少,測量到的TeV電子能譜的準確性高。

  最精確——“悟空”對高能電子和伽馬射線能量測量最準確。“悟空”首次直接測量到了電子宇宙射線能譜在1TeV處的“拐折”,即超高能電子數目出現了快速減少。常進表示,這與之前地面望遠鏡陣列實驗的結果類似,但“悟空”的結果誤差顯著減小,置信度高。特別值得一提的是,“悟空”衛星的數據初步顯示在1.4TeV能區存在能譜精細結構。常進解釋,所謂“精細結構”就是“精確地觀測到了電子數量忽然上升隨后又下降的尖銳變化”,但“目前我們的數據量還不足以對其進行確認”。“悟空”運行良好,預期還將在軌運行至少3年持續收集數據,“一旦該精細結構得以確認,將是開創性發現”。

  “悟空”于2015年12月17日發射成功,其采用中國科學院紫金山天文臺研究人員自主提出的分辨粒子種類的新探測技術方法,“高能電子、伽馬射線的能量測量準確度”和“區分不同種類粒子”兩項關鍵技術指標處于世界領先水平,尤其適合尋找暗物質粒子湮滅過程產生的一些非常“尖銳”的能譜,即電子數目隨能量突然發生變化的信號,是國際暗物質研究的重要一員。

  《光明日報》( 2017年11月30日 13版)

 

來源:光明網-《光明日報》 

 

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