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從傳統中汲取解決當代教育問題的理論智慧

作者:李立國 發表時間:2018年09月29日  

      習近平總書記在全國教育大會上關于堅持扎根中國大地辦教育的重要論述,背靠中國優秀教育傳統,具有深厚的文化底蘊。中華民族有著重視教育的優良傳統,并在長期的教育實踐基礎上形成了獨具特色、影響深遠的思想體系,這些理念與思想不僅對我國教育發展有著重要影響,而且對世界現代教育發展具有啟迪作用。扎根中國大地辦教育的一個重要方面就是要把優秀傳統教育思想中具有當代價值、世界意義的精髓提煉出來、展示出來,并在此基礎上實現創造性轉化與創新性發展,從而建設具有中國特色、世界水平的現代教育。

  扎根中國大地辦教育的傳統情懷體現為對于中國傳統教育思想的形成、演變和發展趨勢的深刻把握和科學認識。

  有了自覺的意識,才可能實現行動的自覺,進而樹立教育的自信,所以,首要前提是真正了解自己的教育傳統。“問渠那得清如許?為有源頭活水來。”何謂“源頭活水”?即為中國優秀傳統教育思想。中華民族有著深厚的文化傳統和教育實踐,在幾千年文明發展中積累的知識智慧和理性思辨而形成了富有特色的教育思想體系,源遠流長并且一脈相承,從未中斷,這些教育思想有著自己的獨特風格和特有概念體系、表達方式,博大精深。例如,明德重道、依仁弘毅的人格觀,尊老愛幼、情系家國的倫理觀,天下興亡、匹夫有責的責任觀,學思結合、博學審問的學習觀,知行合一、身體力行的知行觀,學為人師、行為世范的師德觀,師生從游與春風化雨的育人觀,都凝聚著中華民族對教育和生命的認知與感受,體現著中華民族對于教育和人才培養的精神追求和行為準則,形成中國教育思想的恢宏氣象和深遠影響,奠定了中華民族最為深沉、最為持久的教育自信。

  扎根中國大地辦教育的傳統情懷體現為促進中國傳統教育思想轉型,在新的時代條件下進行教育理念與思想選擇的能力。

  經過一百多年的探索,我們認識到,中國教育的現代化并不等同于西方化,它應該是民族精神與現代人類優秀文明成果的有機結合。任何國家與民族的歷史,都是不可分割的連續體,現代化是傳統的延續和發展,傳統又深藏于現代之中。既沒有與傳統完全不相干的現代化,也沒有與現代化相分離的傳統。思想與精神的繼承,關鍵是承認傳統教育思想中有超越時空、跨越國度、富有永恒價值又有當代意義的內容與形式,尋求中國傳統教育思想與現代教育的“共通元素”和“中國元素”。中國傳統教育思想的“共通元素”是指中國古代與現代教育的共通之處,也指中國與西方教育的共通之處。“因材施教”“學思結合”“啟發教學”“順情導性”“身教重于言教”等教育教學方法,無不閃爍著教育智慧的光芒,既與西方教育思想有共通之處,也可為現代教育發展所借鑒。所謂“中國元素”是指建立在中國國情下形成的特色元素。中國現代教育要植根于中國文化土壤,繼承和弘揚傳統優秀教育思想。一方面,要積極吸收教育發展的世界文明成果以豐富自身,另一方面,要以本土化融入國際化。在堅持教育本土文明的同時融入世界教育體系之中,創新發展具有世界意義的本土化的教育理念與發展模式,不斷提高教育的影響力,彰顯教育的本土文明與中國特色的世界意義。

  扎根中國大地辦教育的傳統情懷體現為正確處理中國傳統教育理念與西方教育的關系,超越中國傳統教育思想與現代西方教育思想對立的理性思維。

  “五四新文化運動”的知識分子,從總結辛亥革命的經驗教訓著手,認為近代革命之所以失敗是因為國民思想的不覺悟,為了趕上西方,就必須改造國民性,引進西方,以現代化為手段建設一個新中國。從此,中國傳統教育與西方現代教育被對立起來,出現了以“西方文化中心”為基礎的“全盤西化論”和新儒家為主導的“東方文化中心論”。“全盤西化論”雖然看到了中西方文化教育之間存在的時代性落差,卻否定了不同文化教育之間存在的民族性差異,否定了現代教育發展的多元模式,否定了西方教育存在的弊端和問題。“東方文化中心論”雖然看到了東西方文化教育間的民族差異性,看到了中國傳統教育的優勢,卻忽視了東西方教育間的時代性距離,忽視了中國傳統教育的現代適應與轉化問題。正確的態度就是要超越中國傳統與全盤西化的二元對立,沒有必要全盤西化和完全否定中國傳統教育,也沒有必要全部回歸傳統和全盤否定西方教育的現代性。我們要摒棄民族的狹隘性、地域的局限性與文明的封閉性,從世界教育的多元發展中尋求智慧,建立基于本土文明的、具有文明共識的現代教育理念與思想。

  扎根中國大地辦教育的傳統情懷體現為對中國傳統教育思想的內在精神力量的創造性轉化與創新性發展,善于從深厚的中國教育傳統中汲取解決當代教育問題的概念工具與方法的理論智慧。

  創造性轉化是汲取傳統優秀教育理念,進行挖掘和闡釋,賦予其時代價值,賦予其新的教育時代內涵和表現形式,激發其生命力。創造性轉化是通過改造使中國傳統教育的價值體系適應新的時代要求,賦予傳統教育思想新的時代內涵和當代呈現方式,從而使中國傳統教育思想獲得新的生命力的一種自我生成和自我革新、自我發展的過程。創新性發展是按照現代教育的發展要求,對傳統教育理念的內涵加以拓展、完善,與現代教育要求相協調和適應,使之能夠在現代教育中發揮作用。創新性發展是要實現傳統教育思想的提升超越,以發展為價值追求,以創新為價值特征,以傳統與現代的有機融合為價值目標,從而使傳統教育思想富有鮮活的生命力,彰顯“以文化人”的本真價值。傳統教育思想的創造性轉化與創新性發展是以中國傳統教育思想為本體資源,以創造與創新為手段,以發展為動力,使傳統教育思想與時代要求相結合,賦予新的時代內涵和現代表達形式,實現傳統教育思想的現代轉型與提升超越,使中國教育的本土文明與世界文明相融合,最終建立起具有世界意義的中國教育體系,使得中國教育思想與發展模式走向世界。

  (作者:李立國,系中國人民大學教育學院教授、副院長)

 

來源:光明日報

 

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