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楊煌:不斷提升歷史思維能力

作者:楊煌 發表時間:2019年04月01日  

      作為馬克思主義政黨,我們黨一直高度重視歷史思維。在革命、建設、改革的各個歷史時期,我們黨正是運用馬克思主義世界觀和方法論,形成了一系列科學的思想方法和工作方法,推動黨和人民事業取得了一個又一個勝利。歷史思維就是習近平總書記一直倡導和身體力行,并要求領導干部掌握的重要的科學思想方法和工作方法之一。

  歷史思維是把現實放在歷史的大背景中正確認識和把握的科學方法

  歷史唯物主義是馬克思主義關于歷史的根本觀點,也是認識歷史和現實的根本方法論。習近平總書記所強調的歷史思維,就是運用歷史唯物主義認識歷史、把握現實的科學思想方法,體現為對歷史的尊重,把現實置于過去、現在、未來的歷史發展過程中進行思考,揭示事物發展的必然規律和內在邏輯。

  歷史思維,是一種思接千載、視通萬里的長時段思維,要求以貫通古今的智慧分析現實問題,打開當下的局限,把問題放在歷史的時段中,究其然,更究其所以然,在歷史中找到現實的根據。歷史思維,是一種整體性思維,要求我們看到事物的相關性和聯系性,正如習近平總書記強調的那樣:“歷史、現實、未來是相通的。歷史是過去的現實,現實是未來的歷史”。關于中國特色社會主義與世界社會主義的歷程分析,關于改革開放前后兩個三十年關系的闡釋,都體現了深邃歷史思維的整體性。歷史思維,也是一種過程思維,注重事物本身的來龍去脈,要求我們以史為鑒、鑒往知來,在歷史前進的邏輯中把握現實,在時代發展的潮流中把握規律。

  思想方法解決人們如何認識世界的問題,工作方法解決人們如何改造世界的問題。歷史思維既是一種思想方法,也蘊含著特有的工作方法。在新時代,我們面臨著日益復雜的國際環境,面臨著改革發展穩定的繁重任務,面臨著諸多難以想象的困難與挑戰,要更好地研究問題、把握規律、推進工作,就必須提高運用歷史思維的能力,借鑒歷史,開辟未來。

  領導干部要多讀點歷史,不斷提高歷史思維能力

  沒有歷史知識,歷史思維就是一句空話。要提高歷史思維,歷史是不可不讀的。新中國成立以后,毛澤東多次向全黨特別是領導干部發出學習歷史的號召,強調要了解中國歷史和世界歷史,特別要了解和懂得鴉片戰爭以來的中國近現代歷史和中國共產黨的歷史。習近平總書記多次強調:“領導干部要多讀一點歷史”,要從歷史中汲取更多精神營養。

  提高歷史思維能力,首要的是從歷史中汲取經驗和智慧。中華文明五千年來一脈相承、從未中斷,一直延續到今天。幾千年來,我國流傳下來的各種歷史文化典籍浩如煙海。這是中華民族的寶貴財富,是領導干部汲取歷史營養的不竭源泉。領導干部要從這些歷史典籍中,了解中國人民創造的燦爛歷史文化,不斷增強文化自信。要注重學習我國近現代歷史,加深對近現代中國國情和中國社會發展規律的認識。當今世界是一個開放的世界,當代中國的發展同世界的發展緊密地聯系在一起。世界歷史知識也是領導干部應該學習的。無論是處理國內改革發展穩定的問題,還是處理對外開放中的問題,都應該放眼世界,具有寬闊的眼光。

  提高歷史思維能力,最為關鍵的是要堅持歷史唯物主義,堅持與工作實際相結合,對所讀之書要取其精華、去其糟粕,讀出歷史深藏著的興衰治亂的奧義和歷史發展脈絡背后的規律。  運用歷史思維,要貫通過去現在未來,把握現在,走向未來

  欲知大道,必先為史。運用歷史思維,就要明了歷史的大邏輯、發展的大潮流。“我們從哪里來?我們走向何方?”這是歷史思維所要把握和回答的根本問題。正如習近平總書記所說,歷史是人類最好的老師,重視歷史、研究歷史、借鑒歷史,可以給人類帶來很多了解昨天、把握今天、開創明天的智慧。讀懂歷史的大邏輯,需要有撥云見日的功夫,在紛繁復雜的表象背后,看大勢、謀大局。歷史車輪滾滾向前,時代潮流浩浩蕩蕩。只有把握世界歷史,才可以看清“百年未有之大變局”是歷史大勢,經濟全球化是不可逆轉的歷史潮流。世界經濟的大海,你要還是不要,都在那兒,是回避不了的。唯有從紛繁復雜的局勢中把握規律、認清大勢,引導好經濟全球化走向,消解經濟全球化的負面影響,才是順應大勢的正確抉擇。只有把握歷史,才能看清中國特色社會主義道路的深厚歷史淵源和廣泛現實基礎,才能增強中國特色社會主義道路自信、理論自信、制度自信、文化自信,堅定不移沿著正確的道路奮勇前進。只有讀懂中華民族近現代史,才能認清從沉淪到奮起、由苦難到輝煌的歷史,才會更加深刻地認識中華民族偉大復興中國夢的深厚根基,并為之而不懈奮斗。

  歷史是最好的教科書。運用歷史思維,治國理政就要以歷史為鏡。習近平總書記指出:“治理國家和社會,今天遇到的很多事情都可以在歷史上找到影子,歷史上發生過的很多事情也都可以作為今天的鏡鑒。”早在1944年毛澤東高度評價郭沫若撰寫的《甲申三百年祭》,要求在解放區重印這篇文章,目的是“叫同志們引為鑒戒,不要重犯勝利時驕傲的錯誤”。今天,新時代要有新作為,無論是治國理政、全面深化改革,還是推進反腐敗斗爭,抑或實現人與自然和諧發展,都可以從歷史中獲得啟迪。對古代的經驗,我們要本著“擇其善者而從之、其不善者而改之”的科學態度,為推進國家治理體系和治理能力現代化提供有益借鑒。

  運用歷史思維,就要不忘初心,堅定歷史定力。在風險考驗面前,不忘本來才能開辟未來;保持定力,才能任憑風浪起,穩坐釣魚臺。我們走得再遠、走到再光輝的未來,也不能忘記走過的過去,不能忘記為什么出發。中國特色社會主義進入新時代,這是我國發展新的歷史方位,標志著中華民族迎來了從站起來、富起來到強起來的偉大飛躍。只有正確把握變與不變,我們才能既順勢而為,又保持定力。新的歷史方位并沒有改變我國仍處于并將長期處于社會主義初級階段這個基本國情。我們必須牢牢立足社會主義初級階段這個最大實際,牢牢堅持社會主義初級階段理論和黨在社會主義初級階段基本路線,牢牢把握穩中求進工作總基調,蹄疾步穩地推進黨和國家各項事業向前發展。要永遠與人民同呼吸、共命運、心連心,永遠把人民對美好生活的向往作為奮斗目標,以永不懈怠的精神狀態和一往無前的奮斗姿態,繼續朝著實現中華民族偉大復興的宏偉目標奮勇前進。

  運用歷史思維,就要堅決反對歷史虛無主義。歷史虛無主義是歷史思維的大敵。歷史是從昨天走到今天再走向明天,歷史的聯系不可能割斷,總是在繼承前人的基礎上向前發展。習近平總書記指出:“歷史和現實都表明,一個拋棄了或者背叛了自己歷史文化的民族,不僅不可能發展起來,而且很可能上演一幕幕歷史悲劇。”對于歷史虛無主義,任何時候都不能掉以輕心,聽之任之,必須擦亮眼睛,作堅決斗爭,捍衛好我們的歷史。

 

來源:學習時報

 

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