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商志曉:“思想是什么”的追問

作者:商志曉 發表時間:2019年04月01日  

       思想是什么?人們或許能夠說出個大概,若要進一步追問:思想具有什么樣的本性、特征,思想與認識、理論、精神等有何異同,可能會讓人難以準確回答。正所謂,最常用的,往往卻是很難言說的;自以為熟悉的,卻可能還是比較陌生的。“思想”之意蘊,大抵如此。

  對“思想”的理解,有諸多角度和多樣表征。有把思想等同于思考活動、思慮行為的,如“外不勞形於事,內無思想之患”,這里的“思想”作動詞用,指稱一種精神、心理層面的活動。有把“思”與“想”先分開、再合為一體來說明的,如金岳霖先生在《知識論》中分別解讀“思”“想”,就“分論思與想”“思與想底分別”“想不能離思”“思不能離想”所作的詳盡論述。有將思想籠統地視為認識成果而未予深究的,如“思想來自實踐”“思想源于生活”這類表述,重在強調思想具有深厚根基,強調思想不是純粹精神活動的產物。還有將思想直接歸結為哲學思維和哲學理念、視為世界觀方法論成果的。

  這些關于“思想是什么”的看法,都在一定層面上回答了問題,無疑是合適的、有道理的。盡管有著不同的角度,卻也揭示出思想的一些基本特質,觸及思想的某一方面稟賦。進一步來看,即便對“思想”的理解有所不同、界定有所差異,但從基本面來看,人們在基礎內涵上還是能夠形成共識,不至于產生大的分歧;其中一些要素內容也能夠為大家所認可,有助于我們對“思想”的深入把握。這些基礎內涵和要素內容包括:思想是理性層面的認識,思想是一種有主見的精神,思想具有系統化、完整性的特征等。

  由此,我們就可以進一步來界定“思想”,并由此獲得關于“思想是什么”的一般規定,即思想是客觀存在反映在人的意識中并經過思維活動而形成的觀念體系。這樣的規定,雖說還不能涵蓋“思想”的所有意蘊,卻也明確無誤地揭示出思想的基本性質,如客觀存在的反映、在人的意識中存在、經過思維活動而形成、呈現為觀念體系。以此為基礎,在“思想是什么”及進一步追問中,我們需要在以下幾點上明白無誤地確認,并深信不疑地堅守:其一,思想來源于現實,來源于實踐,思想的實質內容不是臆造出來的;其二,思想關聯著事物的本質,觸及內在的規律,不是停留在對象事物的表層;其三,思想以主觀形態呈現,是體系化的理性認識,不是零亂無序的觀點碎片;其四,思想能夠啟發并引深思考,能夠作用于現實,具有超越自身的能量。辯證法大師黑格爾說過:思想不是“某種主觀的和偶然的東西”,否則它就沒有價值了。毛澤東多次強調:在實踐基礎上,感性認識產生飛躍,變成了理性認識,這就是思想。

  對“思想是什么”的追問,除了獲得上述一些認識之外,我們還能夠進一步得到極為重要的兩點判斷。

  思想帶有鮮明的主體特征和人格屬性。“思想”一詞雖然主要指稱認識成果,但其動態特征卻極為明顯。說到思想,人們總是聯想到“誰在思想”“誰的思想”“思想的主體是誰”等,思想與思想者被緊密地聯結在一起。馬克思、恩格斯在《德意志意識形態》中指出:“人們是自己的觀念、思想等等的生產者。”“思想、觀念、意識的生產最初是直接與人們的物質活動,與人們的物質交往,與現實生活的語言交織在一起的。”這指明,思想是人的思想,思想是人進行思維活動的結果,離開了人這個思維主體,思想也就無所依附。著名藝術家羅丹的《思想者》雕塑,所以被人們銘記與傳頌,就在于體現了思想者的深刻精神內涵與完整人物塑造。由此可見,與一般性、廣義化的認識有所不同,與同為理性認識成果的理論稍顯區別,思想的主體性傾向更鮮明,思想的主體特征更突出,在“思想”身上透現出很強的人格特征,展現出比較充足的人格屬性。可以說,“思想”概念被賦予更多的主體內涵,在思想之中蘊含著更多的“人”的意愿。

  思想內蘊著價值態度并具有導向功能。這與思想的主體特征和人格屬性關聯,思想者把所思所愿置于認識成果之中,思想主體把所屬政治團體及利益群體的要求滲透在理性判斷之中,使作為思想成果的觀念體系呈現出特有的價值傾向。這種價值傾向是一種價值態度,這種價值態度與價值評價、價值立場相聯,客觀上會起到導向功能,對人們的思維和行為發揮著引領、矯正、糾偏作用。也正因為如此,思想的功能與作用在導向性上就更為強烈些,由其主體性、能動性,進而表現出拓展性、創造性,由其內蘊的理性思維、價值態度,進而表現為導向功能、引領作用。這從古今中外的大量實例中,可以得到充分說明。

 

來源:學習時報

 

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