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林堅:中華文化如何更好地走向世界

作者:林堅 發表時間:2019年05月20日  

 

作者林堅

      中華文化是世界上幾大原生文化之一。它在獨立起源和演變、文明發達的程度、對周邊文化的影響等方面,都具有典型意義。在海外,通過“漢學”等多種形式得到傳播,中華文化對海外華人產生了久遠的影響,并進而影響到當地社會。伴隨著“一帶一路”倡議的推進,中國將在全球治理中發揮更重要的作用,而文化則是一個不可或缺的重要因素。

  當代中華文化的基本定位

  中華文化是我們屹立于世界民族之林的重要標識,也是我們在世界文化激蕩中站穩腳跟的根基。中國的古代、近代、現代以及當代的文化并不是斷裂的,而有其發展演化的脈絡。今天的中國以更大的包容性吸收著各種外來文化,中華傳統文化作為基點和底色,為現代文化的創新提供了智慧和思想,中華文化以其特有的古代文化資源和現代文化再生的歷程可以給當代世界展示其文化的獨特魅力。

  中華文化的思想基礎和核心是中國哲學。戰國時期,儒、墨、道、法等百家爭鳴。秦代尚法家,又盛行神仙之術。六朝隋唐時,儒釋道并舉,有時釋道居先。宋以后理學對社會上層的意識形態曾長期起支配作用。理學以儒為表,釋道為里,熔三者于一爐。近代以后,中國文化受到西方文化的沖擊,儒學也取得了新的形式,增加了新的內容。在中國傳統文化中,儒學一直占有主導的地位,儒道的結合構成了傳統文化的基本內核。

  當代中華文化以傳統文化為根基,結合時代精神賦予了新的內容,主要包括思想學術文化、器物文化、精神文化等。概括起來說,中華傳統文化主要體現在以下方面:

  第一,人本觀:突出人本、人倫,具有民本思想。《管子·霸言》最早提出“以人為本”,就是指以民為本或以百姓為本。孔子把人性解釋為“仁”,孟子解釋為“仁、義、禮、智”,荀子解釋為“義”。中國文化把人看成是群體中一分子,重群體,重社會,以天下為己任,關心社稷,群體意識強。提倡民本和忠君,子孝臣忠,以民為邦本;尊重權威,強調對維持社會協調統一的需要。視天下之人為自己的同胞手足,以善良仁愛之心待人接物。

  第二,實踐觀:強調實事求是、自強不息。“實事求是”是中華民族的優秀思想傳統。中國傳統文化具有“經世致用”的傳統,認為學問須有益于國家,強調學問面向現實,為現實服務。在儒、法、墨等哲學思想熏陶下形成了中華民族剛健有為、自強不息的精神。這種精神一直激勵著中華民族不斷奮斗。

  第三,價值觀:注重和諧,以真善美統一為價值標準。中華傳統文化追求和諧,主張“和為貴”“和而不同”“致中和”“與天地參”;充滿著對“大同”社會的憧憬,它豐富了中華民族的平等自主意識,并轉化為爭取自由的動力。中華傳統文化形成了獨特的價值體系,以善的追求為軸心,其邏輯的終點則是真善美統一的理想之境。

  第四,道德觀:注重精神,強調倫理道德的價值和作用。中華傳統文化著眼倫理本位,強調道德的價值和作用;強調紀律和社會秩序;追求崇高的人格精神,提倡自強不息、剛健有為、積極進取的奮斗精神。強調人的終極目的或人的價值就在于道德人格的自我實踐,并從個人道德擴及家庭、社會和國家,所謂“修身、齊家、治國、平天下”。個人的道德踐履,包括“格物、致知、誠意、正心、修身”。

  中華文化的認同力和適應性都很強。認同,使中華文化具有內聚力,保持自己的民族傳統,歷千年而不衰;適應,則使中華文化順應環境的變遷,不斷調整發展的軌跡,適時應變,與時俱進。要吸收中國傳統文化的積極因素,改造其不足和不適應時代要求的內容,進行創造性轉化和創新性發展。

  怎樣衡量中華文化影響力

  不同的歷史時期,在不同的國家,中華文化的傳播具有不同的境遇。在當代,如何衡量中華文化在海外的影響力,是一個非常現實的課題。筆者認為,對當代中華文化在海外影響力的衡量,可以從民眾態度和心理、文化載體、對思想及行為產生作用的狀況等方面去測度和分析。中華文化在海外影響力最重要的衡量指標就是人們認同、接受的程度。著重從以下方面考量:

  第一,文化符號的認知、感受度。文化符號指能代表一國文化的突出而具有高度影響力的象征現實系統。海外民眾對中華文化符號的認知、感受度直至認同度,是中華文化海外影響力的直觀衡量指標。

  第二,文化載體的輻射、作用力。文化載體主要包括:媒體(如報刊、圖書、電視、網絡等)、器物(如琴棋書畫)、人員等。人是文化主體,也是最重要的文化載體。文化即人化。

  第三,文化傳統的熏陶、感染力。文化傳統是指長期形成的持續對一個民族起作用的某一文化體系,它是在一定時空范圍內形成的價值觀念、思維模式、行動準則、道德規范、風俗習慣等的總和,對人們的行為影響很大。節慶、民俗活動是文化傳統生動的表現形式。

  第四,思想理念的擴散、滲透力。文化最深層的內核是思想、理念和價值觀。文化影響力首先是價值觀念的影響力,世界上各種文化之爭,本質上是價值觀念之爭。在現代和未來,中華文化中的一些精神財富,如人文理想、和諧精神、民本理念等,在協調人與自然、人與人、人與社會的相互關系方面,蘊含著極富洞察力的思想,可以給現代人諸多教益,特別在思維方式層面對現代思維的形成具有培本固元價值。中華文化精神和理念如何在海外產生影響,這是最深層次的問題。

      (作者系中國人民大學國家發展與戰略研究院研究員、中央社院統一戰線高端智庫特約研究員)

 

來源:環球網評論(鳳凰網大風號)

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