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周少青:“各種文明本沒有沖突”

作者:周少青 發表時間:2019年05月21日  

  “各種文明本沒有沖突”

  □ 周少青

  

  習近平主席在亞洲文明對話大會開幕式上的講話,吸引了國內外關注的目光。習近平主席說,“每一種文明都扎根于自己的生存土壤,凝聚著一個國家、一個民族的非凡智慧和精神追求,都有自己存在的價值。人類只有膚色語言之別,文明只有姹紫嫣紅之別,但絕無高低優劣之分。認為自己的人種和文明高人一等,執意改造甚至取代其他文明,在認識上是愚蠢的,在做法上是災難性的!”并一針見血地指出,“各種文明本沒有沖突,只是要有欣賞所有文明之美的眼睛。”

  “文明沖突論”是西方學者對冷戰后世界政治格局發展走向的一種判斷。其代表人物、美國當代學者塞繆爾·亨廷頓預言,冷戰后西方文明、伊斯蘭文明、中華文明、印度文明等七八個文明板塊之間,將會存在一定程度的沖突和競爭,世界秩序將被基督宗教、伊斯蘭教和儒家文明等7種主要宗教文化所塑形。亨廷頓特別強調“文化”和“價值觀”的作用,認為它們是決定國家發展乃至世界格局的決定性因素:“文化深深影響著人們的政治行為,這些由文化界定的偏好對于社會經濟現代化具有持久的影響力,最終將壓倒由現代經濟學所界定的理性的自我利益。”

  亨廷頓的“文明沖突論”將經濟以及作為經濟集中體現的政治置于“文化”或“文明”之下,將世界各國、各民族、各地區之間的差異和沖突歸結為文化和價值觀的差異和沖突。這一學說或論斷不僅掩蓋了當前世界沖突、戰爭不斷的真正原因,而且客觀上起到了為整個西方集團近代以來的殖民、侵略活動辯護、背書的巨大作用。

  “各種文明本沒有沖突”,沖突的是某些國家謀求地區和世界霸權的野心,而世界大多數國家尤其是一些弱小國家和民族渴求和平、安寧,謀求獨立自主發展。21世紀以來,霸權國家利用壓倒性的軍事優勢,一連摧毀中東、北非多個弱小主權國家,使得這些“失敗國家”的國民一夜之間淪為難民并大批涌向歐洲,其在當地的言行被描述成“伊斯蘭文明與基督宗教文明沖突”的活的樣板。

  “各種文明本沒有沖突”,沖突的是一些國家要保持自己在經濟和科技方面的霸權,而另一些新興國家謀求經濟和科技發展。比如,某個國家的政黨竟然祭起“文明沖突”的大旗,公然聲稱與中國的競爭是“一種完全不同的文明和意識形態的戰爭”。

  盡管作為一種學說,“文明沖突論”提出于上世紀90年代,但是作為一種行動理念和實踐,它早在數百年前的殖民時代就已經滲透在殖民者的擴張和掠奪行為中。為了掩蓋罪惡的殖民行為,殖民者打著“教化”“傳播文明”的幌子,去改造、同化甚至公然滅絕他們眼里的“野蠻”民族。

  一定程度上可以說,“文明沖突論”既是對西方國家數百年國際政治歷程和政治邏輯的總結,又是對其未來走向的一種預測。有所不同的是,亨廷頓作為保守的代表,在正式提出“文明沖突論”時,心中所期冀的可能是西方文明的回縮和自保。他雖然強調“文明圈”或“文明的沖突”,卻不主張普世價值,不提倡將產生于基督宗教文明圈的自由和民主制度輸送到包括伊斯蘭世界在內的其他文明圈。但他的后繼者們在歷史慣性和路徑依賴的雙重作用下,為謀求在中東、北非的霸權和政治經濟利益,選擇性地使用了他的這一理論。

  事實表明,所謂“文明的沖突”不過是一個幌子,甚至是一個謊言,深藏于其后的是經濟上的掠奪、政治上的壓迫和文化上的霸權。亨廷頓宣稱,“相較于跨越文明邊界的范圍,同一文明單位內部存在更多的團結:在同一文明單位范圍內,文明開始像19世紀的帝國國家一樣結成同盟來反對異己。”這一立論不論是在歷史上還是現實中,都存在著大量的反證。從歷史上看,僅以基督宗教為例,天主教與東正教的長期分裂與對立,天主教與新教之間的血腥戰爭,近代以來造成巨大傷亡的“一戰”和“二戰”,無一不啟動于基督宗教文明圈。從現實上看,中東的伊斯蘭國家之間互相攻訐,不時大打出手,沒有一點基于“同一文明圈”團結的影子。至于眼下發生的美國與伊朗的對峙,相信誰都不會將此理解成“文明的沖突”。

  值得注意的是,盡管歷史和現實一再證明從來沒有過什么真正的“文明間的沖突”,有的只是赤裸裸的(有可能表現成隱晦的)霸權和利益爭奪,但現實中大量亨廷頓的擁躉總是不能自拔于西方的話語。他們津津樂道于以族宗教或文化劃界,喜歡以“文明的沖突”來解釋世界、理解世界。

  事實上,“二戰”后世界的進步、政治文明以及人權標準的建立,恰恰是建立在否定那種以族劃界、以教區分敵友的“文明圈”理論基礎之上的。“二戰”后聯合國的成立,《聯合國憲章》《世界人權宣言》《公民權利政治權利國際公約》以及《經濟社會文化權利國際公約》等一系列國際規范和標準的建立,既是國際社會擺脫所謂“文明圈”理論的體現,也為國家和其他類型的共同體設定了新的行動標準和人權底線。

  “文明沖突論”的要害在于,它企圖以“文明”或“文化”為抓手,將變動不居的世界和人們的身份認同固定在不同的文明或文化(宗教)陣營中;它最大的危險在于,試圖將人類業已取得的政治文明和進步重新拉回到“二戰”前甚至更早的叢林時代。在那里,國家或人群的行事邏輯是,只問文化(宗教)身份的歸屬,不問事情本身的是非曲直。“文明沖突論”嚴重挑戰業已建立的價值原則,而這正是國際社會面臨的最大威脅。

  習近平主席的文明觀揭示了當前世界部分地區沖突和動亂的真正動因,也是對長期以來流行于西方學界、政界乃至國際社會的所謂“文明沖突論”的一個有力回應。

  (作者系中國社會科學院民族學與人類學研究所研究員;《世干智庫》顧問專家組顧問。)

 

來源:中國民族報

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