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寧夏固海揚黃灌區:旱塬變綠賽江南

作者:穆國虎 發表時間:2019年05月22日  

 “一年一場風,從春刮到冬。天上無飛鳥,風吹沙石跑。”這段順口溜是寧夏中南部三十年前環境惡劣的真實寫照。由于干旱少雨,資源貧乏,一方水土難以養活一方人。


  如今,從寧夏中寧泉眼山驅車一路向南至固原市原州區,一條覆蓋寧夏中南部的綠洲映入眼簾。2018年,位于寧夏中南部的固海揚黃灌區農林牧總收入30.6億元,人均收入6147.93元,是1980年的201倍。

  固海揚黃灌區,從窮窩窩到寧夏中南部干旱帶的又一個“塞上江南”,固海揚黃灌溉工程功不可沒。富起來的老百姓都說,“黃河水讓‘旱塬變綠賽江南’。”

  


  綠意盎然,阡陌縱橫的固海揚黃灌區。同心縣委宣傳部供圖

  從“窖里頭”到“水龍頭”

  “那個時候,水是個稀罕物,比油都金貴。”81歲的寧夏海原縣李旺鎮楊山村村民楊具山回憶起以前缺水的情景,略顯苦澀。

  海原縣位于西海固深度貧困地區腹地,年蒸發量2000毫米左右,而降水量只有蒸發量的十分之一,由于地表徑流量極少,除少量井泉可飲用外,多為苦水。灌區內自然災害頻發,素有“十年九旱”之說。

  三十多年前,當地老百姓吃水基本靠拉運。冬季,或打冰或收雪,運回存到水窖,等消融之后再飲用;夏秋季,主要在谷場和山里的水窖收集雨水,然后用擔子挑或者牛車拉回去再飲用。“那個水苦,牲口喝上都搖頭,更別說人了。”楊具山談及“吃水難”,仿佛就在眼前,“洗鍋水都舍不得倒,存起來,第二天還要繼續用。”

  1986年,寧夏固海揚黃灌溉工程全線通水,村民們告別了“水貴如油”的苦澀歷史。這個被稱為水利典范的工程歷時8年,解決了當時15.3萬人的飲水問題。渠水所到之處,綠樹成蔭,生機盎然。

  喝上黃河水,只是解了燃眉之急,如何充分利用黃河水,讓老百姓喝上放心、安全的自來水,顯得尤為重要。

  今年,寧夏政府工作報告指出:原州、海原、同心、紅寺堡4個縣(區)要脫貧摘帽。從“飲水解困”到“飲水安全”,能否讓老百姓喝上放心的飲用水,事關廣大農村群眾的獲得感和幸福感。

  記者走進原州區東塬村、和潤村,海原縣楊堡村、新源村,同心縣旱天嶺村、新華村,家家戶戶均已通上了自來水。

  “現在,水龍頭一擰,嘩嘩直流。”在楊具山老人看來,像是在做夢,“不敢想象,我這輩子竟然能吃上干凈的自來水。”

  


  固海揚黃工程水渠。穆國虎 攝

  從顆粒無收到糧食豐收

  說起通了黃河水之前的寧夏中南部,同心縣丁塘鎮新華村的村支書馬占武如此形容:“頃畝難比善田。”

  “種了一袋子,收了一帽子。”馬占武回想起三十多年前的糧食產量,作了一個形象的比喻。受缺水的限制,寧夏中南部如何發展產業,發展什么產業?困擾著當地老百姓。

  如果不能因地制宜的發展產業,即便有了黃河水,也會受挫折。

  通水后的第二年,馬占武第一次嘗試種水田,小麥畝產不足100斤。“有水,產量不高,為何?”馬占武自問。

  經過分析,馬占武認為,這里沙化嚴重,土壤改良周期長,需要調整種植思路。“種蘋果樹,套種小麥。”一時間新華村4320畝的蘋果樹種了起來,套種的小麥也有了好收成。“現在一畝地能產6000元哩,頂過去上百畝旱田的產值。”

  種水田嘗到甜頭的固海揚黃灌區的老百姓,開始了大規模的旱田改水田。隨著水田面積的增加,用水量也相應在增加。為了補充水源,1988年至1992年,寧夏水利廳對固海揚黃灌溉工程進行了增容改造。

  目前,固海揚黃灌溉工程總設計流量41.2立方米/秒,設計灌溉面積82萬畝,灌溉面積170萬畝(其中基本農田面積102萬畝,設施農業面積68萬畝)。

  “以前,種百畝旱田,養活不了一家人。現在,3畝水田,一家人吃飽肚子沒問題。”馬占武說,有了黃河水,“‘這道川’的老百姓再也沒有挨過餓。”

  固海揚黃灌溉工程的建設,打破了水資源的“瓶頸”制約,從根本上改善了雨養農業和“靠天吃飯”的被動局面,提高了區域糧食安全能力,保證了糧食安全。

  


  退耕還林后的寧夏中南部山區。同心縣委宣傳部供圖。

  從亙古旱塬到生機盎然

  “第一茬香瓜快要賣完了,還有很多人排隊等著要呢。”海原縣高崖鄉草場村的村支書邵復奇說,忙完這陣子可以歇歇了。草場村“第一茬”香瓜賣了500萬,“還有‘第二茬’和壓砂瓜呢,今年會是個好年景。”

  然而,三十多年前這里的老百姓還在為了生存找“路子”,大多數村民撿發菜、挖甘草,這些“路子”對生態的破壞更嚴重。在生計與生態之間,矛盾不斷被激化,反而破壞了山區的植被,土地沙化越發嚴重。

  固海揚黃灌溉工程清流汩汩,潤澤著寧夏中部干旱帶干涸的土地。立夏過后,位于固海揚黃灌區同心縣新華村的果樹林、旱天嶺村的梨樹林,海原縣草場村的香瓜基地、新源村的青儲種植基地、原州區和潤村的蔬菜基地,綠意盎然,一派生機。

  “自從有了揚黃水,老百姓再也沒有開墾過山地。”固海揚黃工程擴灌八泵站站長馬永勝說,固海揚黃工程有力地支援了封山禁牧工作。

  2003年5月1日,寧夏在全國率先實施全境禁牧封育,全區近300萬只羊全部下山,實施圈養。

  飼草料從何而來?據寧夏水利廳資料顯示,僅同心一縣的揚黃灌區,每年可為干旱山區自行接濟糧食200多萬公斤,羊畜飼料300萬公斤。

  經過群眾的辛勤勞作,整個灌區已變為綠樹成蔭、阡陌縱橫的新型糧食主產區,并形成了向周邊地區延伸的綠色輻射功能,風沙等災害大幅度減少,綠地面積逐年擴大,農民生產條件和群眾居住環境大為改善。

  “固海揚黃灌工程功在當代,利在千秋,我們一定會保護好它。”馬永勝說。

 

來源:人民網-寧夏頻道

 

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