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打造緩解“融資難、融資貴”利器 招行發力票據業務

作者:招銀資訊 發表時間:2019年05月23日  

       5月23日,第215場銀行業例行新聞發布會在北京召開,招商銀行行長助理劉輝以“助力實體經濟,踐行普惠金融——招商銀行票據業務發展實踐”為主題,介紹了招商銀行通過發展票據業務支持中小微企業和民營企業的經驗和規劃。

  劉輝表示,票據作為將核心企業信用遷徙至民營、小微企業的金融工具,是解決中小企業融資難、融資貴的“金鑰匙”。招商銀行將持續發揮現有票據業務優勢,圍繞客戶票據業務需求,牢牢防控風險,充分利用金融科技進行產品創新,不斷提升招行票據業務服務實體經濟的能力。

  票據對緩解“融資難、融資貴”潛力巨大

  隨著上海票據交易所成立和票據電子化基本完成,票據市場風險高發的局面已徹底扭轉,票據市場進入快速、規范發展階段。如業界所稱,票據市場借力金融科技得以快速進入2.0時代,支持實體經濟方面的價值也日益凸顯。

  據統計,2018年全市場票據簽發量18.27萬億、結算量56.56萬億、貼現量9.94萬億,分別同比增長24.84%、62.59%、38.83%,單張票面金額下降至87.96 萬元較前年下降21.93%,貼現利率低于同期貸款水平,其中,中小企業簽發票據量占比超過三分之二。

  對這些數據,劉輝認為,票據結算功能提升帶動簽發量、結算量和貼現量增加,票據作為一種遠期結算工具,正在被越來越多的企業使用。

  票據的背書流轉增加,給需要資金的中小微企業和民營企業獲得了低門檻、高效率的融資機會。作為2016年至今累計直貼量市場排名第一的商業銀行,劉輝披露了招行的直貼數據:“2018年貼現量10255億中,民營企業貼現客戶數占比86%、貼現量占比75%,中小微企業貼現客戶數占比91%、貼現量占比76%。”

  大型企業對票據市場的參與度相對較低,不到簽發量的三分之一。招商銀行認為,這恰恰說明票據市場在緩解中小微企業和民營企業“融資難、融資貴”問題上潛力巨大。

  由于中小微企業抗風險能力弱,導致金融資源基本都是圍繞大型核心企業進行初次分配,債券市場、資本市場、信貸市場資源都主要配置給大型成熟企業。很多大型企業由于信用較好導致金融資源使用不足,同時,供應鏈中賒銷占比越來越高,導致產業鏈上應收應付快速增長,WIND數據顯示,主體評級AA+以上的1100余家企業應付賬款余額就超過了8.5萬億。

  相比其他供應鏈融資工具,票據是以結算帶動融資,具有權責關系清晰、融資效率高、門檻低等突出優勢。大型企業通過簽發商票來置換大量存在的剛性應付賬款,持票中小企業就可以借助大型企業信用通過商票保貼方式低門檻、低利率獲得銀行貼現資金,將能有效緩解大型企業信用富裕和中小微企業‘融資難、融資貴’之間的矛盾。

  多措并舉推動票據發展

  為更好激發票據高效的“信用遷徙”功能,實現金融資源的二次分配,需要進一步完善票據市場基礎設施、創新產品、改變對紙票時代低效率高風險的慣有認識,讓大型企業愿意用票據。

  對此,招行一直積極主動作為。招行是上海票據交易所的發起股東、中國票據研究中心6家銀行類理事單位之一、上海票據交易所創新產品“票付通”3家試點銀行之一、“貼現通”產品5家試點銀行之一。另一方面,積極宣傳、推廣票據產品,2018年在全國召開40場產品推介會,2019年計劃召開70場票據產品推介會,累計參會企業超過9000家,通過這種方式提升大型企業對票據的認識,引導大型企業使用票據。

  除了積極參與并推動票據市場發展以外,招行內部也更加重視票據業務。招行從戰略、體制、產品、服務幾個方面入手,充分利用金融科技,打造“票據大管家”平臺。服務票據全鏈條企業,提升票據業務服務實體經濟能力。

  戰略上,招行將票據業務定位批發銀行戰略業務之一,劉輝說:“在招行‘輕型銀行’戰略中,批發金融的重點是打造交易銀行和投資銀行兩大體系,而票據業務正是交易銀行的題中之義,契合招行輕型銀行轉型的內在要求和服務實體經濟責任要求。”票據具有資本輕、運營輕優勢,且流動性強、信用風險相對較低。

  在執行層面,招商銀行率先在同業中進行了產品整合,將結算、承兌、貼現、票據池、質押、轉貼現、再貼現等產品全部統籌到總行一個部門管理。“在目前國內大中型商業銀行中,招行是唯一一家推行產品一體化的。”經過流程優化和不斷的產品創新,招行票據業務服務能力得到了大幅提升。

  線上服務打破了服務的時空限制,充分利用金融科技在市場首推“網銀在線貼現”“手機APP在線貼現”服務,隨時隨地為企業提供分秒到賬的貼現融資服務。該產品一改由于銀行操作成本高造成的中小企業“小票、短票”貼現難、貼現貴問題,也大幅提升了招商銀行的票據業務服務能力,2018年招行在線貼現發生額2059億占當年總貼現量的20%,其中單張面額在10萬元以下的票據張數占比24%,金額18.99億,3431家貼現企業中98%為中小微企業。劉輝說:“這些數據背后的業務量,在傳統業務模式下是難以想象的。”據了解,招行已經推出了在線承兌產品,用時控制在20分鐘內,線下貼現的用時也壓縮至10分鐘內。

  企業產品的選擇也更加全面和多樣化。招行“票據大管家”可以為企業一站式提供覆蓋票據全生命周期的全部產品,并且可以根據業務需求自由選擇,以票據融資為例,貼現、票據池、質押相結合,紙票、電票;銀票、商票;貼現、貼現通,靈活搭配,自由組合。圍繞企業對票據業務的管理需求,招行也向企業提供了多種智能服務,為企業提供智能報表分析、智能選票、智能風控基礎管理功能,智慧票據池產品實現全流程線上操作,額度動態調整,同時支持紙票、電票入池。

  針對大型企業集團票據業務個性化的需求,招行總行和44家境內分行都成立了獨立的票據業務部門并配置專職產品經理,快速、敏捷、全面服務大型集團客戶的個性化業務需求,為企業提供定制版的“票據大管家”。劉輝舉例說:“為了滿足某央企的票據綜合管理需求,在銀企直連的基礎上,招行總行統籌18家分行為該集團提供綜合全面服務。”

  招商銀行積極作為,一是降低再貼現票據的貼現利率,再貼現票據貼現利率平均下降35BP;二是借助金融科技開發微票通產品,讓再貼現更加高效和精準;三是在資源配置上進行傾斜,票據融資規模的配置位居同業前列。

  建立覆蓋全生命周期風控體系

  雖然票據市場整體風險已經大幅下降,但是招行依舊非常重視票據業務風險防范。

  票據產品的一體化,讓招行更加全面系統的管控票據業務各類風險,在成立專門風險管理團隊的基礎上,建立覆蓋票據全生命周期的全面風險管理體系,有效防范了各類風險案件發生。招行通過票據大管家智能風控功能,讓企業共享招行風險管理能力,提升票據市場風險管理水平。

  依托這種全流程的風險管理視角和能力,對于今年一季度市場關注的票據業務空轉和套利情況,招商銀行行長田惠宇在今年2月份接受第一財經記者專訪時曾說:“招商銀行較早發現這一問題并采取相應措施加以遏制,保證票據融資確確實實用于支持實體經濟。”招行通過嚴格審核承兌業務貿易背景和嚴控高定價結構性存款作為承兌保證金兩種方式,有效的控制了個別企業的套利行為。

  票據作為利率市場化最徹底的市場,貨幣市場的利率波動可以通過后端高頻的轉貼現交易實時影響直貼利率。因此,劉輝指出:“在一季度央行降低實體企業融資成本、引導利率走廊下行的過程中,票據也成為中小微企業和民營企業最快享受到的低利率融資產品,貼現利率最低到3.2%,讓大量中小微企業受益。”不能因為個別企業的套利行為否定票據業務實實在在降低企業融資成本的事實和作用,從數據來看,票據貼現利率長期低于同期貸款利率。

 

來源:招銀資訊

 

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