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文明因交流互鑒而多彩豐富

作者:包美霞 薛廣洲 發表時間:2019年06月09日  

       文明因交流而多彩,因互鑒而豐富。文明交流互鑒,是推動人類文明進步和世界和平發展的重要動力。習近平總書記在今年召開的亞洲文明對話大會開幕式上的主旨演講中強調:“文明因多樣而交流,因交流而互鑒,因互鑒而發展。我們要加強世界上不同國家、不同民族、不同文化的交流互鑒,夯實共建亞洲命運共同體、人類命運共同體的人文基礎。”習近平總書記的重要論述,凝結著中華民族在長期文明交往中的思想智慧,反映了我們黨、也反映了中華民族對人類文明發展規律的深刻把握,對加強世界上不同國家、不同民族、不同文化的交流互鑒、夯實共建人類命運共同體的人文基礎,意義重大。

  以多樣共存超越文明優越

  文明是多彩的。地球因多樣性而豐富,人類因不同而多彩。文明的多樣性決定了文明交流互鑒的必然性與廣闊的空間。尊重文明多樣性是維護世界和平與和諧的重要前提,開展文明對話是世界各國和平共處的重要保障。

  陽光有七種顏色,世界也是多彩的。2016年1月21日,習近平總書記在阿拉伯國家聯盟總部發表的演講中指出:“文明具有多樣性,就如同自然界物種的多樣性一樣,一同構成我們這個星球的生命本源。”習近平總書記認為,人類文明多樣性是世界的基本特征,也是人類進步的源泉。世界上有200多個國家和地區、2500多個民族、多種宗教。不同歷史和國情,不同民族和習俗,孕育了不同文明,使世界更加豐富多彩。“我們要尊重文明多樣性,推動不同文明交流對話、和平共處、和諧共生,不能唯我獨尊、貶低其他文明和民族。人類歷史告訴我們,企圖建立單一文明的一統天下,只是一種不切實際的幻想。”(習近平:《在和平共處五項原則發表60周年紀念大會上的講話》,2014年6月28日)一個國家和民族的文明是一個國家和民族的集體記憶。每個國家、每個民族在長期的社會發展和歷史演進過程中,由于不同的社會制度、價值觀念、歷史傳統、發展道路以及宗教信仰、文化背景都存在差異,創造了獨具特色的文明,從而形成了多姿多彩的人類文明。每一種文明都深深扎根于自己賴以產生的時空背景,體現著各自獨特風采與智慧。

  人類生活在不同文化、種族、膚色、宗教和不同社會制度所組成的世界里,各國人民由此形成你中有我、我中有你的命運共同體。這一命運共同體既是人類文明發展的成果,也是人類文明發展的堅實基礎。每一種文明都有著不可替代的地位與價值,每一種文明都為人類文明的發展作出了各自獨特的貢獻。正是文明的多樣性使人類有了更多的選擇,得以提高自己的能力和形成價值觀,并成為各國各民族可持續發展的主要推動力,世界也因文明的多姿多彩而生機勃勃、絢爛多彩。推動文明交流互鑒,豐富人類文明的色彩,讓各國人民享受更富內涵的精神生活、開創更有選擇的未來。

  以和諧平等超越文明沖突

  文明是平等的。人類文明發展史表明,無論是哪一種文明都值得尊重和珍惜。2014年3月27日,習近平總書記在巴黎聯合國教科文組織總部發表的重要演講中指出:“各種人類文明在價值上是平等的,都各有千秋,也各有不足。世界上不存在十全十美的文明,也不存在一無是處的文明,文明沒有高低、優劣之分。我訪問過世界上許多地方,最喜歡做的一件事情就是了解五大洲的不同文明,了解這些文明與其他文明的不同之處、獨到之處,了解在這些文明中生活的人們的世界觀、人生觀、價值觀。我到過代表古瑪雅文明的奇琴伊察,也到過帶有濃厚伊斯蘭文明色彩的中亞古城撒馬爾罕。我深深感到,要了解各種文明的真諦,必須秉持平等、謙虛的態度。如果居高臨下對待一種文明,不僅不能參透這種文明的奧妙,而且會與之格格不入。歷史和現實都表明,傲慢和偏見是文明交流互鑒的最大障礙。”我們要堅持尊重、平等對待每一種文明,這是文明交流互鑒應有的態度和原則。文明差異不應該成為世界沖突的根源,而應該成為人類文明進步的動力。習近平總書記關于文明平等的重要論述,闡明了人類文明“交流互鑒”的前提與基礎,是我們對待世界不同文明必須堅持的基本態度和原則。

  在全球化的時代,任何一種文明都不可能獨善其身,都不可能居高臨下。每個國家、每個民族的文明都有獨特的意蘊與精神追求,每一種文明都是勞動和智慧的結晶,都有其獨特的價值。人為地將文明進行先進落后之分,只會制造矛盾與沖突,阻礙人類社會進步發展,最終只會導致自我孤立和自我毀滅。傲慢和偏見是人類文明交流互鑒的最嚴重障礙,平等和尊重才是文明交流互鑒的基本前提。歷史和現實證明,只有放棄優越感,平等謙遜、相互尊重地對待每種文明,尊重不同文明賴以形成的自然和文化背景,促進不同文明之間的對話,虛心學習、求同存異,才能取得自身文明的不斷發展和進步。文明霸權和“文明沖突”都必將給世界和平、人類文明帶來災難。我們要本著平等和開放的精神對待不同文明,維護文明多樣性,加強不同文明之間的對話和交流,共同努力構建各種文明兼容并蓄和諧世界。

  以共享包容超越文明隔閡

  文明是包容的。文明之間要對話,不要排斥;要交流,不要取代。人類歷史就是一幅不同文明相互交流、互鑒、融合的宏偉畫卷。縱覽習近平總書記關于文明交流互鑒的一系列重要論述,“和而不同”、“求同存異”、“開放包容”、“互學互鑒”是他反復強調的理念和主張。2014年3月27日,習近平總書記在巴黎聯合國教科文組織總部發表的重要演講中指出:“人類文明因包容才有交流互鑒的動力。海納百川,有容乃大。”“只要秉持包容精神,就不存在什么‘文明沖突’,就可以實現文明和諧。”習近平總書記關于文明交流互鑒的重要論述是對人類文明交流互鑒歷史經驗的科學總結,指明了世界不同文明在交流互鑒中共同進步的理想目標,深刻闡明了推動文明交流互鑒需要秉持的正確態度和原則,深刻揭示了文明交流互鑒的內在規律,為正確處理不同文明之間的關系提供了方法和指向,是對“文明沖突論”、“文明霸權論”的有力回應。

  開放包容、多元互鑒、多樣一體是當代人類文明發展的必由之路。交流互鑒是文明發展的本質要求,推動文明交流互鑒是每個國家應當遵循的根本原則。人類發展史充分證明,不同文明間的交流互鑒是人類進步發展的重要動力,只有交流互鑒,一種文明才能充滿生命力。在當今世界多極化、經濟全球化、文化多樣化、社會信息化的發展大背景下,交流與融合是當前世界發展的歷史潮流。隨著經濟全球化步伐的加快,人類文化交往越來越多。不同文明只有通過交流才能相互了解、相互借鑒、相互包容。各種文明因包容才有交流互鑒的動力,因交流互鑒才變得更加豐富多彩。面向未來,面對世界發展進程中遇到的各種矛盾和挑戰,不同文明只有相互尊重、平等交往、包容差異、真誠互助、和諧相處,以文明交流超越文明隔閡、文明互鑒超越文明沖突、文明共存超越文明優越,人類文明才能進步,世界才能和平發展,才能形成一個多彩世界。

  文明如水,潤物無聲。樹立平等、互鑒、對話、包容的文明觀,堅持和而不同、文明多彩;堅持相互尊重、平等相待;堅持美人之美、美美與共;堅持開放包容、互學互鑒,讓人類文明在交流互鑒中熠熠生輝。

  (作者單位:深圳信息職業技術學院馬克思主義學院;中共中央黨校馬克思主義理論教研部)

 

來源: 《紅旗文稿》2019/11 

 

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